Boko Haram, gruesome violence in Northern Nigeria

Posted Aug 26, 2013 by Frank Kaufmann
New, more gory details have emerged in what was reported first as the killing of 35 Muslim worshipers and the wounding of 14 last week in the town of Dumba village in Borno State, Nigeria.
Imam Abubakar Shekau  Boko Haram leader
Imam Abubakar Shekau, Boko Haram leader
News of the tragedy was slow to emerge because area is remote and because Internet and phone lines had been cut off by authorities in the attempt to disrupt the activities of the group Boko Haram, suspected of the perpetrating the massacre. It was the second such incident in this month.
This morning’s report now indicate that 44 victims had their throats slit, and the remaining victims had their eyes gouged out. The official of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), speaking on the condition of anonymity explained that the group adopted this method of killing as a strategy to avoid sound from gunfire which attracts security forces.
The common reference for Boko Haram in virtually all reports this morning “Islamist extremists,” or in some cases “Islamist insurgents,” probably due to reliance on AP wire service for details as they slowly come to light.
Borno state is located in the northeast of Nigeria, bordering Niger, Chad, and Cameroon is the headquarters of Boko Haram, which now has members in these surrounding countries as well.
The name Boko Haram combines Hausa and Arabic language. Haram of course is the Qur'anic concept referring to that which is “forbidden,” as it may to apply to any number of religious, moral, and ethical prohibitions. The term Boko is less clear. Since the group has now also adopted the all Arabic name Jamā'at ahl as-sunnah li-d-da'wa wa-l-jihād, meaning the Congregation of the People of Tradition for Proselytism and Jihad, the commonly presumed translation for the group’s name Boko Haram is “Western Education is Forbidden,” but Hausa speakers know the word Boko to mean animism. This brings the roots of Muslim opposition to far more distant origins when Islam was confronted and repulsed by Traditional African religions practiced in Borno's small villages.
The modern roots of Boko Haram began in 1995 as Shabaab, Muslim Youth Organization. Its founding leader left to continue his education, and Mohammed Yusuf took over the group's leadership, reorienting it to political purposes. Under Yusuf officially founding Boko Haram in 2002 the group's the aim became the establishment of a Shari'a government in Borno State. It remained relatively peaceful for 7 years, and in 2009 that the group became violent in response to a Nigerian government investigation into the group's activities following reports that its members were arming themselves. Since then death estimates caused by what now has become an intensely violent group range from AP’s 1700 to others as high as 4000.
It is accurate to identify Boko Haram as Islamist, as its self-expressed purposes involve the establishment of a Taliban-like Sharia state, but it is mixed in its make up and sources of extreme violence. It is anti-government having for example, bombed the United Nations (UN) House in Abuja and other government owned structures. It has non-Muslims as its members, and has attacked prominent Muslims, mosques, and has killed Islamic religious leaders.
Boko Haram violence is acute, and should function as a bellwether for an emerging center of instability and breeding ground of extreme militant purpose and organization.
The massive destabilization of the region was greatly exacerbated by the US and British led invasion of Libya.
The U.N. Security Council reports that weapons smuggled out of Libyan military stockpiles last year, results in the influx of arms from Libya to organized criminal groups and terror networks. Since May Boko Haram insurgents have been fighting the army with sophisticated weapons from Libya.