http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/326086

Is our universe inside a black hole? An inside look at new theory

Posted Jun 5, 2012 by Andrew Moran
Are universes inside giant black holes? Is our entire universe located inside a wormhole? This is not science-fiction, but it could answer various cosmic mysteries that plague scientists across the globe (or universe?).
This artist’s impression depicts the newly discovered stellar-mass black hole in the spiral galaxy...
This artist’s impression depicts the newly discovered stellar-mass black hole in the spiral galaxy NGC 300
ESO
Science, especially when it comes to the stars, is never settled. Every day, research scientists put forth new theories to solve riddles and sometimes they are correct and other times are not. For the past several years, physicists have started to understand a new premise that is perplexing many in our universe: this universe may exist inside a black hole.
The theory first made its claim to fame in 2010 when Indiana University theoretical physicist Nikodem Poplawski used Euclidean-based mathematical modeling – based on Euclid of Alexandria, who was a 3rd century B.C. mathematician – to suggest all black holes could have wormholes consisting of universes that were established at the same time as the black holes.
As part of an ongoing series of guest columnists, Poplawski published an article in Inside Science to explain this groundbreaking theory. The theoretical physicist argues that there are many unanswered questions when it comes to the present Big Bang Theory: what are the origins of dark energy? What initiated the Big Bang? Why did inflation conclude?
“The idea that our universe is entirely contained within a black hole provides answers to these problems and many more,” wrote Poplawski. “It eliminates the notion of physically impossible singularities in our universe. And it draws upon two central theories in physics.”
Poplawski states general relativity and quantum mechanics are those two physics theories, which many physicists today are attempting to coalesce under the term “Quantum Gravity.” This would study subatomic particles in black holes as well as other pertinent cosmic questions.
Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, a 1960s adaptation of general relativity, provides a glimpse of another type of view of the universe. This theory looks at “spin,” a significant quantum property that is incorporated in particles.
He uses a picture to explain spin and another property called “torsion.” Poplawski urged readers to imagine torsion as a one-dimensional rod rather than a two-dimensional canvas. “Bending the rod corresponds to curving [space-time], and twisting the rod corresponds to [space-time] torsion. If a rod is thin, you can bend it, but it's hard to see if it's twisted or not.”
Poplawski believes space-time torsion would only be noticeable in the early stages of the universe or in black holes because it would be apparent as a repulsive force that mimics the space-time curvature’s gravitational force.
According to his research, this is how torsion would work at the birth of our universe: gravitational attraction would overpower torsion repulsive forces, but torsion would eventually become strong enough to prevent matter to compress into an infinite density and instead it becomes finite density. The dense state leads to vast production of particles, which would increase the mass of black holes. With the boosting number of particles with spin, the result would be higher levels of space-time torsion. The repulsive torsion would end the collapse and create a “big bounce.” Rapid recoil may have led to universe expansion and torsion mechanism suggests black holes gave birth to baby universes inside.
“If that is true, then the first matter in our universe came from somewhere else. So our own universe could be the interior of a black hole existing in another universe,” added Poplawski. “Just as we cannot see what is going on inside black holes in the cosmos, any observers in the parent universe could not see what is going on in ours.”
Torsion could explain the imbalance between matter and antimatter as well as the source of dark energy.
In the end, Poplawski notes physicists must unite Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory fully with quantum mechanics into a quantum theory of gravity to solve the mysteries, which would, of course, raise new ones. What would be some of the new questions? How many layers of parent universes exist? How do we test the theory that our universe resides inside a black hole?
Black hole mania
The latest reinvigoration of Poplawski’s theory comes as astronomers have found strong and convincing evidence that a massive black hole is being ejected from its host galaxy at several million miles per hour.
Using observations from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, researchers believe the black hole merged with another one and obtained a strong recoil kick from gravitational wave radiation, according to a press release.
“It's hard to believe that a supermassive black hole weighing millions of times the mass of the sun could be moved at all, let alone kicked out of a galaxy at enormous speed," said Francesca Civano, study author at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
"But these new data support the idea that gravitational waves – ripples in the fabric of space first predicted by Albert Einstein but never detected directly – can exert an extremely powerful force."