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Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Electronics Applications 2011-2021

PR Newswire

NEW YORK, July 11, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Electronics Applications 2011-2021

Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and their compounds exhibit extraordinary electrical properties for organic materials, and have a huge potential in electrical and electronic applications such as photovoltaics, sensors, semiconductor devices, displays, conductors, smart textiles and energy conversion devices (e.g., fuel cells, harvesters and batteries). This updated report brings all of this together, covering the latest work from 100 organizations around the world to details of the latest progress applying the technologies. New developments, challenges and opportunities regarding material production and applications are given.

Applications of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for electronics applications

Depending on their chemical structure, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used as an alternative to organic or inorganic semiconductors as well as conductors, but the cost is currently the greatest restraint. However, that has the ability to rapidly fall as new, cheaper mass production processes are established, which we cover in this report. In electronics, other than electromagnetic shielding, one of the first large applications for CNTs will be conductors. In addition to their high conductance, they can be transparent, flexible and even stretchable. Here, applications are for displays, replacing ITO; touch screens, photovoltaics and display bus bars and beyond.

In addition, interest is high as CNTs have demonstrated mobilities which are magnitudes higher than silicon, meaning that fast switching transistors can be fabricated. In addition, CNTs can be solution processed, i.e. printed. In other words, CNTs will be able to provide high performing devices which can ultimately be made in low cost manufacturing processes such as printing, over large areas. They have application to supercapacitors, which bridge the gap between batteries and capacitors, leveraging the energy density of batteries with the power density of capacitors and transistors.

Challenges are material purity, device fabrication, and the need for other device materials such as suitable dielectrics. However, the opportunity is large, given the high performance, flexibility, transparency and printability. Companies that IDTechEx surveyed report growth rates as high as 300% over the next five years. New developments regarding the production of pure CNTs and the separation of conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes are given in this updated report.

Graphene, a cheap organic material, is being enhanced by companies that are increasing its conductivity, to be used in some applications as a significantly cheaper printed conductor compared to silver ink. Graphene and its compounds are increasingly used to make transistors that show extremely good performance - a progress that comes with new cheaper production processes for the raw material. All this work is covered in this updated report from IDTechEx.

Activity from over 110 organizations profiled

IDTechEx has researched 113 companies and academic institutions working on carbon nanotubes, graphene and their compounds, all profiled in the report. While manufacturers in North America focus more on single wall CNTs (SWCNTs); Asia and Europe, with Japan on top and China second, are leading the production of multi wall CNTS (MWCNTs) with Showa Denko, Mitsui and Hodogaya Chemical being among the largest suppliers.

Opportunities for Carbon Nanotube material supply

A number of companies are already selling CNTs with metallic and semiconducting properties grown by several techniques in a commercial scale but mostly as raw material and in limited quantities. However, printable CNT inks are beginning to hit the market. The last year has shown further development regarding cheap production, purification and separation of conducting and semiconducting nanotubes. However, the selective and uniform production of CNTs with specific diameter, length and electrical properties is yet to be achieved in commercial scale.

Opportunities for Carbon Nanotube device manufacture

There are still some hurdles to overcome when using printing for the fabrication of thin carbon nanotube films. There is relatively poor quality of the nanotube starting material, which mostly shows a low crystallinity, low purity and high bundling. Subsequently, purifying the raw material without significantly degrading the quality is difficult. Furthermore there is also the issue to achieve good dispersions in solution and to remove the deployed surfactants from the deposited films. Nevertheless, especially research institutes and material suppliers are working to solve the biggest issues in short time. The latest work by company is featured in the report.

Key benefits of purchasing this report

This concise and unique updated report from IDTechEx gives an in-depth review to the applications, technologies, emerging solutions and players. It addresses specific topics such as:

Activities of 100 global organizations which are active in the development of materials or devices using carbon nanotubes or graphene.

Application to conductors, displays, transistors, super capacitors, batteries, photovoltaics and much more

Types of carbon nanotubes and graphene and their properties and impact on electronics

Current development as well as challenges in production and use and opportunities

Forecasts for the entire printed electronics market which carbon nanotubes and printed electronics could impact

For those involved in making or using carbon nanotubes, or those developing displays, photovoltaics, transistors, energy storage devices and conductors and want to learn about how they can benefit from this technology, this is a must-read report.



1.1. Carbon Nanotubes

1.2. Graphene


2.1. Properties of CNTs

2.2. Metallic/semiconducting CNT separation

2.3. CNTs as conductors

2.4. Comparison to other conductors

2.5. Comparison to other semiconductors

2.6. Properties of graphene

2.7. Creating a band gap in graphene


3.1. Manufacture of CNTs

3.1.2. Arc Method

3.1.3. Laser Ablation Method

3.1.4. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

3.2. Manufacture of Graphene

3.2.1. Scotch tape method

3.2.2. Epitaxial Graphene - grown on silicon-carbide crystals

3.2.3. Expanded Graphene

3.2.4. Templated growth


4.1. Printing Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

4.1.1. Latest progress

4.2. Conductors

4.2.1. Deposition technologies and main applications

4.2.2. Latest progress with CNT conductors

4.2.3. Challenges

4.3. Transistors

4.3.2. CNT Transistors

4.3.3. Graphene Transistors

4.3.4. Challenges

4.4. OLEDs and flexible displays

4.4.2. Latest progress

4.5. Lighting

4.6. Energy storage devices

4.6.1. Batteries

4.6.2. Supercapacitors

4.7. Photovoltaics

4.7.1. Organic Photovoltaics

4.7.2. Hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics

4.7.3. Infrared solar cells

4.7.4. Photodiode

4.8. NRAM data storage device

4.9. Sensors and smart textiles

4.10. Thin film speakers


5.1. Aneeve Nanotechnologies LLC, USA

5.2. Angstron Materials LLC., USA

5.3. Applied Nanotech, USA

5.4. Arry International Group, Hong Kong

5.5. BASF, Germany

5.6. Bayer MaterialScience, Germany

5.7. Brewer Science, USA

5.8. Canatu Ltd., Finland

5.9. Carben Semicon Ltd, Russia

5.10. Carbon Solutions, Inc., USA

5.11. CarboLex, Inc., USA

5.12. Cap-XX Australia

5.13. Case Western Reserve University, USA

5.14. Catalyx Nanotech Inc. (CNI), USA

5.15. CheapTubes, USA

5.16. Chengdu Organic Chemicals Co. Ltd. (Timesnano), China

5.17. CNano Technology Ltd, USA

5.18. Cornell University, USA

5.19. CSIRO, Australia

5.20. C3Nano, Inc., USA

5.21. Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd., Japan

5.22. DuPont Microcircuit Materials (MCM), USA

5.23. Eden Energy Ltd., Australia

5.24. Eikos, USA

5.25. Frontier Carbon Corporation (FCC), Japan

5.26. Fujitsu Laboratories, Japan

5.27. Future Carbon GmbH, Germany

5.28. Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), USA

5.29. Graphene Energy Inc., USA

5.30. Graphene Industries Ltd., UK

5.31. Hanwha Nanotech Corporation, Korea

5.32. HeJi, Inc., China

5.33. Helix Material Solutions Inc., USA

5.34. Hodogaya Chemical Co., Ltd., Japan

5.35. Honda Research Institute USA Inc. (HRI-US), USA

5.36. Honjo Chemical Corporation, Japan

5.37. HRL Laboratories, USA

5.38. Hyperion Catalysis International, Inc.

5.39. IBM, USA

5.40. Intelligent Materials PVT. Ltd. (Nanoshel), India

5.41. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA

5.42. Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany

5.43. MER Corporation, USA

5.44. Mitsui Co., Ltd, Japan

5.45. Mknano, Canada

5.46. Nano-C, USA

5.47. NanoCarbLab (NCL), Russia

5.48. Nano Carbon Technologies Co., Ltd. (NCT)

5.49. Nanocomb Technologies, Inc. (NCTI), USA

5.50. Nanocs, USA

5.51. Nanocyl s.a., Belgium

5.52. NanoIntegris, USA

5.53. NanoLab, Inc., USA

5.54. NanoMas Technologies, USA

5.55. Nano-Proprietary, Inc., USA

5.56. Nanoshel, Korea

5.57. Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, Inc., USA

5.58. Nanothinx S.A. , Greece

5.59. Nantero, USA

5.60. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan

5.61. National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), USA

5.62. NEC Corporation, Japan

5.63. New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), USA

5.64. Noritake Co., Japan

5.65. North Carolina State University, USA

5.66. North Dakota State University (NDSU), USA

5.67. Northeastern University, Boston, USA

5.68. Optomec, USA

5.69. PARU, Korea

5.70. Pennsylvania State University, USA

5.71. PETEC (Printable Electronics Technology Centre), UK

5.72. Purdue University, USA

5.73. Pyrograf Products, Inc., USA

5.74. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), USA

5.75. Rice University, USA

5.76. Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, USA

5.77. Samsung Electronics, Korea

5.78. Sang Bo Corporation (SBK), Korea

5.79. SES Research, USA

5.80. Shenzhen Nanotechnologies Co. Ltd. (NTP)

5.81. Showa Denko Carbon, Inc. (SDK), USA

5.82. ST Microelectronics, Switzerland

5.83. SouthWest NanoTechnologies (SWeNT), USA

5.84. Sunchon National University, Korea

5.85. Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Korea

5.86. Sun Nanotech Co, Ltd., China

5.87. Surrey NanoSystems, UK

5.88. Thomas Swan & Co. Ltd., UK

5.89. Toray Industries, Japan

5.90. Tsinghua University, China

5.91. Unidym, Inc., USA

5.92. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), USA

5.93. University of California, San Diego, USA

5.94. University of Central Florida, USA

5.95. University of Cincinnati (UC), USA

5.96. University of Manchester, UK

5.97. University of Michigan, USA

5.98. University of Pittsburgh, USA

5.99. University of Southern California (USC), USA

5.100. University of Stanford, USA

5.101. University of Stuttgart, Germany

5.102. University of Surrey, UK

5.103. University of Texas at Austin, USA

5.104. University of Texas at Dallas, USA

5.105. University of Tokyo, Japan

5.106. University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

5.107. Vorbeck Materials Corp, USA

5.108. Wisepower Co., Ltd., Korea

5.109. XG Sciences, USA

5.110. XinNano Materials, Inc., Taiwan

5.111. Y-Carbon

5.112. Zoz GmbH, Germany

5.113. Zyvex, Inc., USA



6.2. Inno.CNT

6.3. National Technology Research Association (NTRA)

6.4. TRAMS - Tera-scale reliable Adaptive Memory Systems


7.1. Market Opportunity and roadmap for Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

7.2. Costs of SWCNTs

7.3. New Focus for Printed Electronics - the importance of flexible electronics

7.4. Focus on invisible electronics

7.5. Shakeout in organics

7.6. Market pull




2.1. Typical Sheet Resistivity figures for conductors

2.2. Comparison of the main options for semiconductors

4.1. Main applications of conductive inks and some major suppliers today

4.2. Comparison of the three types of capacitor when storing one kilojoule of energy.

5.1. Baytubes product specifications

5.2. Results of pulse-heat CVD

5.3. Characteristics of the CNT-FED compared with LEDs

7.1. Market forecast by component type for 2011 to 2021 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites

7.2. Costs of SWeNTs

7.3. SES Research

7.4. Nanothinx S.A. (price per gram in Euros)

7.5. Nanocs

7.6. Arry International Group

7.7. Carbon Solutions

7.8. Carbolex

7.9. Cheaptubes

7.10. Helix Material Solutions

7.11. MER Corporation


1.1. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes

1.2. The chiral vector is represented by a pair of indices (n, m). T denotes the tube axis, and a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in real space

2.1. Atomic Force Microscope image of carbon nanotubes before and after processing.

2.2. Potential applications are flexible solar cells, displays and touch screens.

2.3. Targeted applications for carbon nanotubes by Eikos

2.4. Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials, at typical thicknesses used, compared with bulk metal

3.1. Traditional CNT film processes are complex

4.1. New printable elastic conductors made of carbon nanotubes are used to connect OLEDs in a stretchable display that can be spread over a curved surface

4.2. Stretchable mesh of transistors connected by elastic conductors

4.3. Hybrid graphene-carbon nanotube G-CNT conductors

4.4. Traditional geometry for a field effect transistor

4.5. CNT Transistors through Specialized Printing Processes from NEC Corporation

4.6. IBM has patterned graphene transistors with a metal top-gate architecture (top) fabricate on 2-inch wafers (bottom) created by the thermal decomposition of silicon carbide.

4.7. Carbon nanotube Field Effect transistors

4.8. Epitaxial graphene FETs on a two-inch wafer scale

4.9. An enlarged photo of a several-millimeter square chip with graphene transistors. The graphene transistors can be seen in the enlarged photo of the tips of the two electrodes

4.10. An LSI mounted on a flexible substrate by using CNT bumps

4.11. Two types of OLED construction

4.12. CNT networks for flexible displays

4.13. ANI: proof of concept CNT lamp

4.14. Internal structure of Power Paper Battery.

4.15. Proposed battery design from UCLA

4.16. Energy density vs power density for storage devices

4.17. The carbon nanotube supercapacitor versus batteries and traditional capacitors

4.18. The process. The resulting film is photographed atop a color photo to show its transparency

4.19. Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) scientists have demonstrated an ability to precisely grow "towers" composed of carbon nanotubes atop silicon wafers. The work could be the basis for more efficient solar power for soldiers in

4.20. A three-terminal memory cell based on suspended carbon nanotubes: (a) nonconducting state '0', (b) conducting state '1', and (c) Nantero's NRAM™.

4.21. The main options for organic sensors

4.22. Four scanning electron microscope images of the spinning of carbon nanotube fibres

4.23. Photographs of CNT-cotton yarn. (a) Comparison of the original and surface modified yarn. (b) 1 meter long piece as made. (c) Demonstration of LED emission with the current passing through the yarn.

4.24. Thin, almost transparent sheets of multi-wall (MWNT) nanotubes are connected to an electrical source, which rapidly heats the nanotubes causing a pressure wave in the surrounding air to produce sound.

4.25. The CNT thin film was put on a flag to make a flexible flag loudspeaker

4.26. Carbon nanotube thin film loudspeakers

5.1. Hormone Sensing using CNT Printed Integrated Circuits

5.2. ANI: proof of concept CNT lamp

5.3. Fully printed CNT FET-based switch

5.4. Fully printed TFT device schematic

5.5. Transparent conductive material roadmap: Gen 1 at the moment; Gen 2 is the goal for end of 2010, Gen 3 is the long term target

5.6. Directly produced prepatterned films

5.7. Cap-XX supercapacitor technology with carbon coating.

5.8. Layout of CNT-FE BLU fabricated through pulse

5.9. Schematic illustration of experimental setup

5.10. Illustrations of micro-patterned cathodes

5.11. SEM images of CNTs on Samples C, D and E

5.12. Field emission properties of CNT-emitters patterned on a glass substrate by pulse-heat CVD. Luminescence images from the backsides of the cathode at various applied voltages are indicated in inset.

5.13. SEM images of CNTs on the micro-patterned electrodes with interline spacing (a) 20, (b) 50, (c) 100 and (d)200 !m (top view).

5.14. CNT Ink Production Process

5.15. Target application areas of Eikos

5.16. IBM has patterned graphene transistors with a metal top-gate architecture (top) fabricate on 2-inch wafers (bottom) created by the thermal decomposition of silicon carbide.

5.17. The graphene microchip mostly based on relatively standard chip processing technology

5.18. Cncept version of the photoelectrochemical cell

5.19. This filament containing about 30 million carbon nanotubes absorbs energy from the sun

5.20. Density gradient ultracentrifugation

5.21. Color pixel; 3mm, display area; 48mm x480mm

5.22. Color pixel; 1.8mm, display area; 57.6mm x 460.8mm.

5.23. A prototype display of digital signage.

5.24. Application images of public displays.

5.25. Schematic structure of CNT-FED using line rib spacer.

5.26. Phosphor-dot pattern and conductive black-matrix pattern.

5.27. An application on the information desk. The color pixel pitch were 3mm(left) and 1.8mm (right).

5.28. A photograph of a displayed color character pattern in two lines. The color pixel pitch was 1.8mm.

5.29. SEM images of CNT deposited metal electrode.(a) A photograph of the CNT deposited metal frame. (b) SEM image; boundary of barrier area. (c) SEM image; surface of the CNT layer. (d) SEM image; a surface morphology of CNT.

5.30. One of prototype displays on the vending machine. The display was under field-testing in out-door. The CNT-FED and display module were under testing continuously during ca.15months in Osaka-city up to date, and they were still con

5.31. A photograph of driving system. A solar cell and the charging controller, yellow small battery and CNT-FED module.

5.32. A photograph of a displayed color character which was driven by solar cell and small battery. The color pixel pitch was 1.8mm.

5.33. High density SWCNT structures on wafer-scale flexible substrate.

5.34. SEM micrographs of assembled SWNT structures on a soft polymer surface. (a) Patterned SWNT arrays on parylene-C substrate; (b) high magnification view of a typical central area; (c) SWNT micro-arrays that are 4 μm wide with 5 μm s

5.35. A new method for using water to tune the band gap of the nanomaterial graphene

5.36. A mesh of carbon nanotubes supports one-atom-thick sheets of graphene that were produced with a new fluid-processing technique.

5.37. A three-terminal single-transistor amplifier made of graphene

5.38. CNT films from Rutgers University

5.39. Printed CNT transistor

5.40. A 16 bit HF RFID inlay

5.41. The one bit commercial display tag

5.42. Graphene OPV

5.43. The resulting film is photographed atop a color photo to show its transparency

5.44. Fabrication steps, leading to regular arrays of single-wall nanotubes (bottom).

5.45. The colourless disk with a lattice of more than 20,000 nanotube transistors in front of the USC sign.

5.46. Thin, almost transparent sheets of multi-wall (MWNT) nanotubes are connected to an electrical source

7.1. Supercapacitors

7.2. Market forecast by component type for 2011-2021 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites

7.3. Chengdu Organic Chemicals Co. Ltd. (Timesnano)

7.4. HeJi Inc

7.5. The percentage of printed and partly printed electronics that is flexible 2011-2021

7.6. Evolution of printed electronics structures

To order this report:

Nanotechnology Industry: Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Electronics Applications 2011-2021

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Nicolas Bombourg
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Intl: +1 805-652-2626

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