The quake hit at 1231 GMT about 22 kilometers (14 miles) southeast of the eastern city of Hualien and had a depth of 41 kilometers, the Center said. No tsunami warning was issued.
The US Geological Survey put the quake's magnitude at 5.7. It said the epicenter was 50 kilometers (31 miles) deep.
"Since the quake originated at a spot rather deep below the surface of the sea, and it did not last long, the risk of it causing severe damages was low," Kuo Kai-wen, the director of the Center, told AFP.
A major earthquake with a 7.6 magnitude happened in Taiwan occurred in 1999, which killed at least 2,400 people and was deemed one of the nation's deadliest earthquakes.