The winds globally contain enough energy to meet world demand 100 times over.
The regions best suited
for harvesting this energy match with population centers in the eastern U.S. and East Asia. One problems is fluctuating wind strength which presents a challenge for exploiting this energy source on a large scale.
The National Center for Environmental Prediction and the Department of Energy, Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology and Cristina Archer of California State University, Chico, drew on 28 years of data to compile the first-ever global survey of wind energy available at high altitudes in the atmosphere.
The researchers assessed potential for wind power in terms of “wind power density,” which takes into account both wind speed and air density at different altitudes.
“There is a huge amount of energy available in high altitude winds,” said coauthor Ken Caldeira.
“These winds blow much more strongly and steadily than near-surface winds, but you need to go get up miles to get a big advantage. Ideally, you would like to be up near the jet streams, around 30,000 feet.”
are persistent features in the atmosphere which exist at altitudes between 20 and 50,000 feet. Jet steams shift seasonally.
jet stream winds are steadier and 10 times faster than winds near the ground. This means they may be a potentially vast and dependable source of energy.
Over the years a number of technological concepts have been proposed to harvest this energy; these include tethered, kite-like wind turbines that would be lofted to the altitude of the jet streams. Up to 40 megawatts of electricity could be generated by current designs and transmitted to the ground via the tether.
“We found the highest wind power densities over Japan and eastern China, the eastern coast of the United States, southern Australia, and north-eastern Africa,” said lead author Archer.
“The median values in these areas are greater than 10 kilowatts per square meter. This is unthinkable near the ground, where even the best locations have usually less than one kilowatt per square meter.”
Included in the analysis were assessments of high altitude wind energy for the world’s five largest cities: Tokyo, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, and Mexico City. “For cities that are affected by polar jet streams such as Tokyo, Seoul, and New York, the high-altitude resource is phenomenal,” said Archer. “New York, which has the highest average high-altitude wind power density of any U.S. city, has an average wind power density of up to 16 kilowatts per square meter.”
In addition,Tokyo and Seoul have high wind power density because they are both affected by the East Asian jet stream. Mexico City and Sao Paulo are rarely affected by the polar jet streams and just occasionally by the weaker sub-tropical jets, so as a result they have lower wind power densities than the other three cities.
“While there is enough power in these high altitude winds to power all of modern civilization, at any specific location there are still times when the winds do not blow,” said Caldeira. Even over the best areas, the wind can be expected to fail about five percent of the time.
“This means that you either need back-up power, massive amounts of energy storage, or a continental or even global scale electricity grid to assure power availability. So, while high-altitude wind may ultimately prove to be a major energy source, it requires substantial infrastructure.”