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article imageScientists Turn Human Skin Cells Into Insulin-Producing Cells

By Bob Ewing     Sep 17, 2008 in Health
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have transformed cells from human skin into cells that produce insulin, the hormone used to treat diabetes.
The breakthrough may lead to new treatments or even a cure for the millions of people affected by diabetes.
The approach involves reprogramming skin cells into pluripotent stem cells, or cells that can give rise to any other fetal or adult cell type, and then inducing them to differentiate, or transform, into cells that perform a particular function – in this case, secreting insulin.
Recent studies have shown cells can be returned to pluripotent state using “defined factors” (specific proteins that control which genes are active in a cell), a technique pioneered by Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, a professor at Kyoto University in Japan.
The UNC study is the first to demonstrate that cells reprogrammed in this way can be coaxed to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells. Results of the study are published online in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
“Not only have we shown that we can reprogram skin cells, but we have also demonstrated that these reprogrammed cells can be differentiated into insulin-producing cells which hold great therapeutic potential for diabetes,” said study lead author Yi Zhang, Ph.D., Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, professor of biochemistry and biophysics at UNC and member of the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.
“Of course, there are many years of additional studies that are required first, but this study provides hope for a cure for all patients with diabetes,” said John Buse, M.D., Ph.D., president of the American Diabetes Association and professor and chief of the endocrinology division in the UNC School of Medicine’s department of medicine.
Recent research exploring a possible long-term treatment – the transplantation of insulin-producing beta cells into patients – has yielded promising results. This approach, however, faces its own challenges, given the extreme shortage of matched organ donors and the need to suppress patients’ immune systems.
The research findings could potentially address those problems, since insulin-producing cells could be made from diabetic patients’ own reprogrammed cells.
Zhang is collaborating with Buse to obtain skin samples from diabetes patients. He hopes his current experiments will take this approach one step closer to a new treatment or even a cure for diabetes.
The research was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institutes of Health. Study co-authors include postdoctoral fellows Keisuke Tateishi, M.D.; Jin He, Ph.D.; Olena Taranova, Ph.D.; Ana C. D’Alessio, Ph.D.; and graduate student Gaoyang Liang, all from the UNC School of Medicine’s department of biochemistry and biophysics.
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